# Nitrogen Dioxide Formula: Definition, Formula, and Usage (2023)

• Written bySahana Soma Kodarkar
• Last change 2023-01-26

Nitrogen Dioxide Formula:Nitrogen dioxide, one of several nitrogen oxides, is a chemical compound with the formula NO2. Often produced as an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid (used in fertilizer), this foul-smelling, unpleasant gas can be deadly in large quantities. It has been linked to pulmonary edema, or accumulation of excess fluid in the lungs, acid rain, etc.

As can be seen from the formula for nitric oxide, it is a curved molecule forming a nitrogen atom with two oxygen atoms on each side. The distance between nitrogen and oxygen is 119.7 pm and the bond angle between the two arms is 134.4°. Continue reading the article to learn more about nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen dioxide formulas.

## Chemical formula of nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}$$. It is one of several nitrogen oxides found in the environment. $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}$$ is an intermediate product in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, which is produced in millions of tons per year and is mainly used in the manufacture of fertilizers. At higher temperatures it turns into a red-brown gas. If inhaled in large amounts, it can be fatal.

### Sources of Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is rarely released directly into the atmosphere. Nitrogen dioxide is formed when nitrogen oxide $$\left( {{\rm{NO}}} \right)$$ and other nitrogen oxides $$\left( {{\rm{NOx}}} \right)$$ form the air reacts with other chemicals to form nitrogen dioxide. The combustion of fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil), especially the fuel used in cars, is the main source of nitrogen dioxide produced by human activities. It is also formed in the production of nitric acid, welding and the use of explosives, gasoline and metal refining, commercial manufacturing, and food manufacturing. Volcanoes and bacteria are natural sources of nitrogen oxides.

(Video) Writing the Formula for Nitrogen Dioxide

Study the chemical formula and concept of the mole

### Structure of Nitrogen Dioxide

It is known that nitrogen dioxide has an electronic structure $${\rm{O}} = {\rm{N}} \to {\rm{O}}$$. Nitrogen dioxide has an unpaired electron, so it behaves like a typical weird molecule. It is colored and tends to polymerize into a colorless dimer, $${{\rm{N}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_4}$$, with an even number of electrons, as shown:

### production of nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide can be produced in a number of ways. Some of the ways in which nitrogen dioxide is produced are as follows:

1. Nitrogen dioxide is generally formed by the oxidation of nitric oxide in the air by oxygen:

$$\mahop {{\rm{2NO}}}\limits_{{\rm{Nitric}}\,{\rm{Oxide}}} {\rm{ + }}\mahop {{{\rm{O} }_{\rm{2}}}}\limits_{{\rm{Sauerstoff}}} \, \to \,\mahop {{\rm{2N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm {2}}}}\limits_{{\rm{Stickstoff}}\,{\rm{Dioxid}}}$$

2. Most combustion processes that use air as the oxidant produce nitrogen dioxide. At high temperatures, nitrogen combines with oxygen to form nitric oxide:

(Video) How to Write the formula for Nitrogen Monoxide

$$\mahop {{{\rm{O}}_2}}\limits_{{\rm{Sauerstoff}}} {\rm{ + }}\mahop {{{\rm{N}}_{\rm{ 2}}}}\limits_{{\rm{Stickstoff}}} \, \to \,\mahop {{\rm{2NO}}}\limits_{{\rm{Stickstoff}}\,{\rm{Oxid }}}$$

$$\mahop {{\rm{2NO}}}\limits_{{\rm{Nitrat}}\,{\rm{Oxide}}} {\rm{ + }}\mahop {{{\rm{N} }_{\rm{2}}}}\limits_{{\rm{Sauerstoff}}} \, \to \,\mahop {{\rm{2NO}}}\limits_{{\rm{Stickstoff}}\ ,{\rm{Dioxid}}}$$

3. Some metallic nitrates, such as lead nitrate, thermally decompose to form $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}$$

$${2\rm{Pb}}{\left( {{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{3}}}} \right)_{\rm{2} }} \to \,{\rm{2PbO}}\,{\rm{ + }}\,{\rm{4N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\, {\rm{ + }}\,{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}$$

4. Nitrogen dioxide is produced in the laboratory by the action of concentrated nitric acid on copper filings,

$${\rm{4HN}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{3}}}{\rm{ + Cu}}{\mkern 1mu} \to {\mkern 1mu} {\rm{ Cu}}{\left( {{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{3}}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}{\mkern 1mu} + 2{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}{\rm{ + }}{\mkern 1mu} {\rm{2}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm {2}}}{\r{O}}$$

5. In the laboratory, $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}$$ can be made in a two-step process in which nitric acid is dehydrated to produce nitrous oxide, which is then thermally converted to nitrogen dioxide decomposed.

$${\rm{2HN}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{3}}} \to \,{{\rm{N}}_{\rm{2}}}{{\ rm{O}}_{\rm{5}}}{\rm{ + }}\,{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}$$

$${\rm{2}}{{\rm{N}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_5} \to \,4{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2 }{\rm{ + }}\,{{\rm{O}}_2}$$

### Properties of Nitrogen Dioxide

1. Nitrogen dioxide is a red-brown gas at temperatures above $$21.2\,^\circ {\rm{C}}}$$ with a pungent, acrid odor, at temperatures below $$21.2 it becomes a yellowish- brown liquid \ ,^\circ {\rm{C}},$$ and converts to colorless dinitrogen tetroxide at temperatures below $$– 11.2\,^\circ {\rm{C }}.$$.

(Video) How to Write the Name for NO2

2. The bond length between nitrogen and oxygen atoms is $$119.7\rm{pm}}$$. This link length corresponds to a link order of one and two.

3. In contrast to ozone, the electronic ground state of nitrogen dioxide is a dual state.

4. The molar mass of nitrogen dioxide is $$46.006\;{\rm{g}}}/{\rm{mol}}}$$.

5. The density of nitrogen dioxide is $$1.880\;{\rm{g}}}/{\rm{L}}$$.

6. The melting and boiling points of nitrogen dioxide are $$– 9.3\,^\circ {\rm{C}}$$ and $$21.15\,^\circ {\rm{C} } }, respectively,$$.

7. It is water soluble. Its aqueous solution is a mixture of nitrous acid and nitric acid.

$${\rm{2N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right){\rm{ + }}{{\rm {H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right){\mkern 1mu} \to {\mkern 1mu} {\rm{HN }}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + HN}}{{\rm{O}} _3}\izquierda( {{\rm{aq}}} \derecha)$$

8. It's naturally acidic. Reacts with sodium hydroxide to form a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate.

$${\rm{2N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right){\rm{ + NaOH}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \direita){\mkern 1mu} \to {\mkern 1mu} {\rm{NaN}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\left ( {{\rm{aq}}} \direita){\rm{ + NaN}}{{\rm{O}}_3}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \direita) + {{\ rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right)$$

9. Nitrogen dioxide acts as a reducing and oxidizing agent. Decolorizes acidified potassium permanganate.

$${\rm{2KMn}}{{\rm{O}}_4}\esquerda( {\rm{g}} \direita){\rm{ + 3}}{{\rm{H}}_2} {\rm{S}}{{\rm{O}}_4} + 10{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2} + {\rm{2}}{{\rm{H }}_2}{\rm{O}}\, \a \,{{\rm{K}}_2}{\rm{S}}{{\rm{O}}_4}{\rm{ + 2MnS }}{{\rm{O}}_4} + {\rm{10HN}}{{\rm{O}}_3}$$

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It oxidizes sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid.

$${\rm{S}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right){\rm{ + }}{{\rm {H}}_2}{\rm{O}}\esquerda( {\rm{l}} \direita){\mkern 1mu} + {\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\ rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right)\, \to \,{{\rm{H}}_2}{\rm{S}}{{\rm{O}} _4}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {\rm{NO}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right)$$

### use of nitrogen dioxide

1. Nitrogen dioxide can be used as an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid and in the manufacture of oxidized cellulose compounds.
2. It can also be used as an oxidizing agent.
3. It can be used as a catalyst and an intermediate in the production of sulfuric acid.
4. It can also be used as an oxidizer for rocket fuel and as a nitrating agent.
5. Nitrogen dioxide can also be used to make explosives.

### The harmful effects of nitrogen dioxide on health

Nitrogen dioxide has the greatest impact on respiratory health. Children who breathe nitrogen dioxide increase the risk of respiratory infection and can lead to poorer lung function later in life. Airborne nitrogen dioxide concentrations have also been linked to increased mortality and hospitalizations for respiratory diseases. Nitrogen dioxide can weaken the lungs' defenses against bacteria, making them more susceptible to infection. Asthma can also get worse.

### Summary

Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_2}$$. It is one of several nitrogen oxides found in the environment. Airborne nitrogen dioxide concentrations have also been linked to increased mortality and hospitalizations for respiratory diseases. Nitrogen dioxide can be used as an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid and in the manufacture of oxidized cellulose compounds as an oxidizing agent and in the manufacture of explosives.

Q.1. How is nitrogen dioxide formed?
Responder:
Nitrogen dioxide can be formed in several ways. One of the ways in which nitrogen dioxide is produced is through the oxidation of nitric oxide in the air by oxygen.

$$\mahop {{\rm{2NO}}}\limits_{{\rm{Nitric}}\,{\rm{Oxide}}} + \mahop {{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{ 2}}}}\limits_{{\rm{Sauerstoff}}} \, \to \,\mahop {{\rm{2N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{2}}}} \limits_{{\rm{Stickstoff}}\,{\rm{Dioxid}}}$$

F.2. What is the formula for nitrogen?
Responder:
The formula for nitrogen is $${{\rm{N}}_2}.$$

F.3. Why is nitrogen dioxide bad?
Responder:
Very high levels of nitrogen dioxide can damage the human respiratory system and increase a person's susceptibility and severity to respiratory infections and asthma.

F.4. What is the symbol for nitrogen gas?
Responder:
The symbol for nitrogen gas is $${{\rm{N}}_2}.$$

F.5. What are the $$5$$ uses of nitrogen?
Responder:
The five uses of nitrogen are as follows:
for. It is used in the production of nitric acid.
B. It is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.
C. It is used in the production of ammonia.
D. It is used to make explosives.
My. It is used to make dyes.

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F.6. What is the main source of nitrogen dioxide?
Responder:
Burning fossil fuels is the main source of nitrogen dioxide.

We hope this article on the “Nitrogen Dioxide Formula” has been of some help to you. If you have any questions, leave a comment below and we'll get back to you.

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