Let me start by addressing the elephant in the room: learning grammar can be tedious and demanding.
Traditional learning methods will constantly encourage you to learn and repeat grammar rules, often out of context. Most often in a boring and outdated way that modern linguistic and pedagogical methods have rendered obsolete.
I'm with you on this - yeahhe shouldn'tbe like that. On the other hand, grammar is an essential element of any language. It's not the only form of fluency, but it's there.necessary.
So I agree that we shouldn't be ashamed of our grammar skills; in fact, no native speaker will scoff at not knowing the correct present perfect form. However, you should not fail to practice target language grammar.
What is our action plan?Find a new, more interactive and "natural" way to learn grammar instead of completely ignoring it or obsessing over it.Find a happy medium, a way to improve your grammar skills while putting them in a context of fruitful learning.
This article will be your basic guide to practicing Greek grammar. I've put together basic language rules, as well as a handful of resources and exercises to help you learn Greek grammar in a way that suits your personal learning style.
A basic overview of Greek grammar
A common question from those just starting to learn Modern Greek: "Is Greek grammar difficult?". This question cannot be answered directly, simply because there is no such thing as "easy" or "difficult" grammar - it all depends on the structure of the mother tongue and the degree of similarity with the target language.
Suppose you are a native English speaker and want to learn modern Greek grammar. Some would say that Greek grammar is complicated. It's actually not that different from English! Both languages have (mostly) similar sentence structures and parts of speech!
To help you practice Greek grammar, we will now cover the basic grammatical structure of Modern Greek.
Both English and Greek follow the basics.THENruler (subject-verb-object). In general, most structures are the same in questions, demonstratives and imperatives, placement of adjectives and adverbs, etc.
Although,Greek has a more "relaxed" structure. Due to the rich morphology, it is easier to determine which noun is the object and which is the subject. This results in easier "juggling" of words in a sentence, but also occasionally omitting the subject!
I know it sounds difficult, but I guarantee it's a lot easier than it looks. If you systematically practice Greek grammar, you will master it quickly.
You can also consultthis chart is very usefulwhich compares typical sentence structure in Greek, English, and Spanish.
part of speech
Another interesting fact for anyone aspiring to learn Greek grammar is that it has the same grammatical classes as English.
Below you can see the Greek language parts of speech and common grammatical aspects.
|numbers||Sex||romances||Schedules||personas||You||states of animation|
|participles||2 (*)||3 (*)||4 (*)||3||–||2||–|
Number, gender and case
In Greek, articles, nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declined according to number, gender and case.
are onlytwo numbersin modern Greek:single(singular) emany(plural form). Easy, right?
The other two categories are a little more difficult for several reasons. Let's discuss cases.Full Four Cases in Modern Greek:
- indicative, commonly used forelementsin sentences;
- Genitive, usually meaningpossession, location, not insideadverbial situations;
- Accusative, used forobjectsin sentences;
- Vocative, used only when youto callEUto call somebody.
Things are relatively easy to master. However, this does not apply to gender.
modern greekIt has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.Well, these genres are not "gender" in the biological or social sense. They are called "formal genres". What does it mean? It means thatevery noun has completely any formal gender. The sofa is masculine, the chair is feminine, the table is neutral, and chaos is everywhere.
This rule is happily known by speakers of other Indo-European languages (such as Italian, Spanish, French, German, Polish and others). As for English speakers learning Greek, I understand your frustration. It all comes down to constant practice.
Times, people, moods and voices
The hardest part of your Greek grammar practice is the verb conjugations. we already createda guide to help you with Greek conjugationSo here we are going to look at some of the basics of Greek grammar.
The Greek language hasthree people, singular and plural. You can see three people in this handy personal pronoun table:
|1st person singular||EU||/ego/||EU|
|2nd person singular||Ty||/Sim/||that is good.)|
|3rd person singular||he she this||/a'ftos/, /a'fti/, /a'fto/||he she this|
|first person plural||Mi||/e'mis/||Mi|
|2da persona plural||Ty||/esis/||you pl.)|
|third person plural||They||/a'fti/, /a'ftes/, /a'fta/||they (masculine/feminine/neutral)|
To use: If you need help with the International Phonetic Alphabet of Greek, check outthis page.
Also, there are twogrammatical voiceson Greek verbs (there are actually three, but the third is more semantically significant, so we'll ignore it for now):
- Active voice(active voice)
- passive voice(passive voice)
Modern Greek also has a totalThreelubricantfive humors (someto containparticipleeuinfinitive).Namely:
finally they areeight timesin Greek. These are:
|Present tense||Present tense||Real|
|past times||past continuous||Past continuous|
|future times||instant future||The future tense is simple.|
|future continuous||future continuous|
|perfect times||Adjacent||Perfect gift|
|the past perfect||the past perfect|
|perfect future||perfect future|
You can find a complete guide to Greek verb conjugationsHere.
Types of exercises to practice Greek grammar
Depending on your grammar level and what you are most comfortable with, you can practice with different grammar exercises.
Here are some of the most common types of exercises:
- fill in the blank; you must use the correct form of the missing word to fill in the gap in the sentence.
- choose the correct word; an option simpler than the previous one, you need to select the correct form of the word from the list of options.
- making words; in a sentence you need to change the form of the word, for example, change the verb to a noun.
- _____ it went really well. (chefs)
The correct answer is "ο μάγειρας", taking into consideration the verb "μαγειρεύω" and agreeing with the adjective "καλός" A phrase can be translated as "O cozinheiro era muito bom"
- sentence transformation; usually change the subject and object of the sentence to check the active and passive of the verb.
These and other types of grammar exercises are perfect for practicing Greek grammar. If you're a beginner, you can test the waters with multiple choice exercises. If you are approaching the intermediate level, you can try more difficult exercises.
Clozemaster It offers multiple-choice exercises for a quick practice session and complete sentences, making it a great app for reviewing Greek grammar.
Resources for practicing Greek grammar
Now that we've covered the basics of modern Greek grammar and the different types of grammar exercises, let's take a look at some resources to help you practice your Greek grammar.
Apps to learn Greek grammar
To keep up, many apps have been developed to help you learn languages.
The ones we found most useful are listed below:
Duolingo is undoubtedly one of the most popular language learning apps that provides personalized and gamified learning.
Using Duolingo can be really beneficial for practicing Greek grammar, as many exercises require you to choose the grammatically correct form of a word or arrange the words into a well-formed Greek sentence.
If you like to play with flashcards,Ankiit's great free software. You can create your own flashcards to help you remember the most important endings or irregular verbs.
Of course, if you want to take it a step further, Clozemaster is the way to go.
Clozemasteris a fun and fast way to improve your language skills by playing a series of puzzles that will help you to develop your vocabulary and grammar knowledge.
Study with Greek grammar books
Some of you prefer a more traditional way of learning, and that's perfectly fine! You can refer to one of the following physical or digital Greek grammar books:
- Notes on Modern Greek Grammar for Absolute Beginners(digital). The perfect companion for beginners.
- Neohel Complete Series for Learning Greekwith textbooks for adults and teenagers.
- Grammar practice with 200+ Greek verbs. This is an English explanatory book for those who are learning Modern Greek as a foreign language.
- Beginner's Guide to the Greek Language. Workbook for beginners with grammar tables and exercises for basic Greek grammar.
- 71 everyday Greek verbs. A printable eBook with 71 fully conjugated common Greek verbs.
Greek grammar exercises (printed or online)
Finally, don't forget to work on your Greek grammar worksheets. Many of them, available for download or as online exercises, will be very useful for practicing Greek grammar.
Below are resources for practicing Greek grammar:
- Site webGreckiGramatyka.euoffers a wide range of free Greek practice sheets for beginners and advanced users, making it a great resource for grammar practice.
- Hellinikaoffers a wide variety of exercises, many of which are dedicated to grammatical phenomena.
- Site P.Georgalascontains interactive grammar exercises for all your needs.
- GriegoPod101also provides us with a variety of printable Greek worksheets.
If you are interested in more features, you can refer toour article on the best Greek resources.
Tips to practice Greek grammar better
In addition to specific resources, we can also give you some tips on how to improve your Greek grammar practice.
Create a study plan
Do not neglect regular and constant study.Learning a language is an activity that requires time and adequate space above your head.
Pick a time of day when you feel like you can perform better and exercise.each day. The key to fluency, especially grammar, is staying in touch with what you are learning.
define clear goals
The next important step is to define your goals in a clear and achievable way.If you set goals that are too broad, you can end up losing motivation and even feeling bad about not reaching unattainable goals.
Don't try to achieve above average results. It's always better to take small steps towards perfection, even if it means something will take longer or you'll have to tweak things several times.Practice makes perfect, and setting small, achievable goals is the best way to feel good about your progress and stay motivated.
The third and equally important piece of advice is to always look for feedback. As you make progress in learning a language, getting feedback is crucial. You can try to communicate with other students or even chat with native speakers using apps likehello talkEUTandem.
Greek grammar practice - summary
It's true, grammar is an essential part of learning a language. You shouldn't focus on it, but you can't ignore it either. But that doesn't mean you have to stick to traditional practices.Through daily and systematic practice of your preferred methods, you will eventually become familiar with the specific rules of the target language.
If you're looking for additional tips, you can also check out ours.articlehow to improve grammar in any foreign language.
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Clozemasteris designed to help you learn language in context by filling in the gaps in authentic sentences. With features like Grammar Challenges, Cloze-Listening and Cloze-Reading, the app will let you highlight all the skills you need to speak Greek fluently.
Take your Greek to the next level. Click here to start practicing real Greek phrases!
We've got some good news for you! Greek grammar shares some similarities with English grammar: Both languages use the same types of words. Both languages have a similar sentence structure.What are the cases in Greek grammar? ›
In Greek they are five: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and vocative, or, ordered differently, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative. Each case has certain specific functions, indicating the meaning of each noun in relation to other words in the sentence.What is the infinitive of modern Greek? ›
There is no infinitive in modern Greek. For naming a verb, the first-person singular of the present tense is used as a generic term. For example, we refer to the verb γράφω, to write.Which is harder Greek or Russian? ›
Greek is a relatively difficult language to master, even more so for English speakers. But it's still easier to learn than Russian or Arabic. The reason many English speakers find Greek to be so difficult is that it's not closely related to the English language.How long does it take to learn Greek fluently? ›
For a motivated English-speaker, who's gone to school, studies every day for about 1½ hours, you could reach an upper intermediate level of Greek in about 2½ years. This is based on the calculator that I made for figuring out how long it takes to learn any language depending on different factors.What are the 4 cases in Greek? ›
The cases in Greek are Nominative, Genitive, Accusative, and Vocative. Number is a way of identifying the quantity of a noun. Number can either be singular or plural.What are the 4 Greek cases? ›
There are five CASES in Greek, the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative.What are the six cases grammar? ›
In Russian, the six cases are the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional cases. What's the difference between them? Nouns in the nominative case answer the questions “what?” and “who?” In dictionaries, nouns always appear in the nominative case. Учитель пишет (Uchitel' pishet).How many tenses does Greek have? ›
In the indicative mood there are seven tenses: present, imperfect, future, aorist (the equivalent of past simple), perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. (The last two, especially the future perfect, are rarely used).Is Modern Greek grammar hard? ›
Of all European languages, studies show that Greek is among the most difficult not only for native English speakers, but those who speak Romance languages as well.
Antique, idol, dialogue, geography, grammar, architect, economy, encyclopaedia, telephone, microscope... all these common English words have something in common: they're derived from Greek.How to learn Greek fluently? ›
The best way to become fluent in Greek is by taking classes with a teacher. Using language apps or a book are great ways to start learning, but once you reach a certain point, you might need an experienced tutor to get you to a higher level, especially when it comes to conversation.Which is harder Hebrew or Greek? ›
3 Reasons Hebrew is Easier than Greek. 1. Hebrew has FAR Fewer Forms to Learn. Hebrew, like Greek, is an inflected language in which words assume various forms depending on their function in a sentence.What is the closest language to Greek? ›
BBC - Languages. Like a golden apple of ancient mythology, Greek is the only language on its branch of the Indo-European family tree. Its closest relations are the Indo-Iranian languages, and Armenian.What makes Greek hard to learn? ›
Greek in particular is especially hard to learn for English speakers, considering the fact that its grammar is structured in a completely different way. Additionally, those who speak English will have to learn the Greek alphabet, a step that is not required to learn most European languages.How can I improve my Greek vocabulary? ›
- Write Them Down. While taking an official language class, the teacher will often have you write each vocabulary word out several times without writing the English translation. ...
- Record Yourself Reciting the Words. ...
- Study With Flashcards. ...
- Read in Greek.
The three major classical orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.What is covid 19 in Greek? ›
Listen. Print this page Save page as PDF. Πληροφορίες για τον κορονοϊό (COVID-19) διατίθενται παρακάτω.What are the two types of Greek? ›
There were two main types of plays that the Greeks performed: tragedies and comedies. Tragedy - Greek tragedies were very serious plays with a moral lesson.What are the three famous Greek problems? ›
Three such problems stimulated so much interest among later geometers that they have come to be known as the “classical problems”: doubling the cube (i.e., constructing a cube whose volume is twice that of a given cube), trisecting the angle, and squaring the circle.
According to the latest estimates of the General Secretariat of Hellenes Abroad, today there are more than 5,000,000 people of Greek origin that live outside of the Greek borders, scattered around 140 countries across the globe.How many Greek letters are there? ›
The Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters and is considered the ancestor to most modern European alphabets. The Latin alphabet used in English—and many other languages—is derived from the Greek alphabet through Etruscan and with later alterations, such as the addition of the letter W.Which language has the most grammatical cases? ›
What languages have the most cases? Hungarian has a whopping 18 cases and Finnish has 15. Basque, Estonian, Georgian, and Bengali each have more than 10 cases. West Greenlandic has between 8 and 9 depending on who you ask (you can see where this starts to get complicated) while Tamil has 7 or 8.What are the three cases in grammar? ›
There are three cases. Subjective case: pronouns used as subject. Objective case: pronouns used as objects of verbs or prepositions. Possessive case: pronouns which express ownership.What are the three grammatical cases? ›
There are only three cases in modern English, they are subjective (he), objective (him) and possessive (his). They may seem more familiar in their old English form - nominative, accusative and genitive.Is Greek sentence structure the same as English? ›
Overview of Word Order in Greek
Overall, the sentence structure is the same as that in the English language. A major difference is that the subject can sometimes be omitted in Greek, as the form of the verb itself indicates the first, second, or third person so that the subject is often understood from the context.
Greek in particular is especially hard to learn for English speakers, considering the fact that its grammar is structured in a completely different way. Additionally, those who speak English will have to learn the Greek alphabet, a step that is not required to learn most European languages.What language has the same grammar as English? ›
Closest Major Language: Dutch
Like Frisian and English, Dutch is another West Germanic language that developed from Proto-Germanic. Because of this, Dutch possesses many words and phrases similar to English and has a similar grammatical structure.
An additional aspect of the Greek language that many new learners have found challenging is its grammar. Greek uses not only masculine and feminine descriptors for nouns but has a neutral gender, too. Additionally, Greek uses four cases, although three are most frequently used.
Overall, if your native language, or previous language you have learned, is a Romance language, you may find Classical Latin much more familiar. So in these circumstances, Classical Latin would be “easier” to learn in comparison. This perspective is what often leads to the claim that Ancient Greek is harder to learn.
About 80 percent of the entries in any English dictionary are borrowed, mainly from Latin. Over 60 percent of all English words have Greek or Latin roots. In the vocabulary of the sciences and technology, the figure rises to over 90 percent.What is the hardest grammar to learn? ›
Perhaps the “hardest” language studied by many Anglophones is Latin. In it, all nouns are marked for case, an ending that tells what function the word has in a sentence (subject, direct object, possessive and so on). There are six cases, and five different patterns for declining verbs into them.What's the easiest language in the world? ›
- English. It's the most widely spoken language in the world, making practice possible. ...
- French. French has over 100 million native speakers and is – as the official language in 28 countries – spoken on almost every continent. ...
- Spanish. ...
- Italian. ...
The correct answer is Persian. The Persian language was replaced by English as the official language for the government of India in 1835. The Persian language was the official language of the court under the Mughal Administration.What is the closest living language to English? ›
The closest language to English is one called Frisian, which is a Germanic language spoken by a small population of about 480,000 people. There are three separate dialects of the language, and it's only spoken at the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.What is the perfect tense in Greek grammar? ›
The perfect tense in Greek is used to describe a completed action which produced results which are still in effect all the way up to the present. Sample translation: “I have believed.” Notice that the perfect tense carries two ideas: (1) completed action and (2) continuing results.How many words do you need to know to be fluent in Greek? ›
Fluent in almost all everyday situations will only be possible if you are able to recognize the 5000 most commonly used Greek words. Your vocabulary will be comparable to that of a native speaker who has completed high school.What language is Greek most like? ›
BBC - Languages. Like a golden apple of ancient mythology, Greek is the only language on its branch of the Indo-European family tree. Its closest relations are the Indo-Iranian languages, and Armenian.